Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is a water-soluble essential nutrient important for regulating cell growth, multiplication, energy metabolism and cellular respiration.
In the human body, vitamin B2 is converted into two primary enzymes necessary for the synthesis of red blood cells, the production of antibodies to the immune system, and the breakdown of fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
If you do not have enough of this vitamin in your diet, it can cause vision, skin, nail and hair growth problems, impaired cognitive function, low energy levels, or inflammation.
Most people can get enough of this nutrient to avoid flaws. However, there may be cases where supplementation of additional vitamin B2 sources may be beneficial to health.
This additive was used as a preventive measure for migraine headache prevention. It is also used as an adjunct to aging, promoting detoxification, reducing homocysteine concentration and maintaining visual health.
This article discusses how vitamin B2 works in the body, uses common uses, health benefits, deficiencies, sources of food and supplements, safety and side effects, and potential interactions.
Vitamin B2 - What Is It?
Vitamin B2 is a vitamin B complex that is commonly found in food supplements as riboflavin. Food supplements may also contain riboflavin 5′-phosphate sodium salts.
Many plants and animals can produce this important trace element endogenously, but not by humans. Vitamin B2 is important for people, which means we have to get it from food or food supplements.
Like others Vitamin B complex members, riboflavin is used to produce the main body fuel, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is also important for facilitating healthy adrenal function and maintaining the nervous system function.
It is found primarily in the human body as a component of flavocoenzymes such as the Coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and the flavin mononucleotide (FMN).
These coenzymes are then used in flavoproteins that have many functions in the body.
Vitamin B2 is required for proper functioning and growth of cells and activation of other nutrients, especially other B-group vitamins.
Data from new clinical trials indicate that the addition of riboflavin has an antioxidant effect. It has been shown to suppress free radical cell damage and can help eliminate this damage.
Vitamin B2 is thought to play an important role in protecting the eyes from oxidative stress. Free radical damage can cause corneal damage and cataracts occur.
Cataract is an eye disorder where the lens gradually becomes opaque or cold. This often leads to visual impairment and blindness in all cases.
How Does Vitamin B2 Work In The Human Body?
According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMM), riboflavin is usually found in the body as coenzyme, which means that it is needed for protein-based enzymes.
The main role of vitamin B2 is to produce two cofactors required for the normal functioning of many different enzymes. These two cofactors are flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN).
FAD and FMN are used in many enzymatic reactions to flavoproteins. They act as electron carriers in redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions associated with energy metabolism.
These enzymes are particularly important for redox chemistry, which involves oxidation of fatty acids.
According to dr. Josh Axo, Vitamin B2 is important because it:
- Contributes to ATP metabolism, maintains energy levels
- Helps cells to grow and function
- Helps maintain eye and skin health
- Helps maintain healthy blood cells
- Reduces free radical damage
Dr. Ax notes that riboflavin works synergistically with other B-complex complex vitamins. For example, this vitamin is important for the roads where it is involved Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine), vitamin B9 (folate) and vitamin B3 (niacin).
Dr. Ax says that this vitamin should come mainly from organic food sources or from high-quality multivitamin products that include other B-group family members.
UMM says B vitamins are very important for human health. They play an important role in the health of the heart, skin, eyes, blood and nerves.
Vitamin B Complex Supplements used to maintain hormonal balance, metabolism and digestive health.
All B vitamins are soluble in water and insoluble in fat. This means that they are not stored in fatty cells and do not form solutions with lipid molecules in the body.
Unlike fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin D, the human body cannot protect these molecules for future use. Only vitamin B12 a large amount of body is protected.
All others Group B complex vitamins should be used regularly to maintain proper levels. Dr. According to Ax, the daily intake of fresh vitamin B2 foods can help to ensure proper availability and facilitate its various physiological roles.
Additional Vitamin B2 Benefits
Vitamin B2 food supplements are designed to promote higher energy levels, athletics, stress relief and mood balance. However, more research is needed to determine the additional effect of B2.
Vitamin B2 is needed by the body to break down foods into suitable forms of energy and to produce ATP. For this reason, it is sometimes used as an energy-enhancing product.
However, it is not known whether the intake of this vitamin can increase the level of energy in people who are already taking enough vitamin to avoid deficiencies.
Riboflavin also affects thyroid function and adrenal function. For this reason, fatigue is reduced and physical efficiency is promoted.
B2 is important for hormonal balance. Too little of this vitamin diet increases the risk of thyroid dysfunction / disease. However, it is not known whether increasing consumption will increase thyroid hormone levels or increase metabolism.
Dr. Ax says riboflavin is "useful for calming the nervous system, fighting chronic stress and regulating hormones that control appetite, energy, mood, temperature, etc."
These statements were not assessed by the FDA. More research is needed to determine whether or not these vitamins are used for these purposes.
Vitamin B2 Food Sources
According to dr. Axo, Some of the Best Foods to Increase Vitamin B2, are Beer Yeast, Green Leaves vegetables, raw milk and cheese, eggs, liver, kidneys, almonds, legumes and mushrooms.
Vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts are also good sources of riboflavin. There are many other foods that contain this vitamin.
Usually it is found in foods like flavin mononucleotide (riboflavin-5'-phosphate) and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Only 10% of food products are in other forms, such as Free Riboflavin, Glycosides and Esters.
Here are some good food sources with the appropriate amount of milligrams per serving:
- Beef, chicken, lamb, veal and turkey liver: 3,9 mg / 100 g.
- Seaweed: 2,5 mg / 1 cup
- Beef and Lamb Kidney: 2,5 mg / 100 g.
- Molluscs and cuttlefish: 1,5 mg / 100 g.
- Organic Feta Cheese: 1,3 mg / 1 cup
- Almonds: 1 mg / 1 cup
- Herb and beef: 0,87 mg / 100 g.
- Mackerel: 0,49 mg / 100 g.
- 1 big egg: 0,26 mg
The cooking process (baking, guiding) does not reduce the amount of riboflavin, but the effect of sunlight destroys it.
Dr Ax recommends storing these foods from any light source. He also claims that it is better to cook or roast food.
Vitamin B2 Food Supplements
If possible, it is recommended to obtain vitamin B2 from fresh organic fruit, vegetables, meat and milk sources.
However, for some people this is not possible and in such cases it may be useful to use high quality supplements.
There are many different supplements that contain riboflavin either as one ingredient or in combination with other vitamins and minerals. Usually it is included Vitamin B complex. It is in the form of tablets and capsules.
The most commonly used single-use riboflavin supplements are between 25, 50 and 100 mg.
Perform your research on purchasing and compare different riboflavin supplements. Look for reliable manufacturers that produce high quality products.
Please note that supplementing your diet with individual B complex vitamins is not usually recommended. This can cause imbalance with other B vitamins.
It is recommended to balance the consumption of all complex members of B as they are known to work together.
Be sure to protect the vitamin B2 supplement from light to maintain its effectiveness.
Recommendations For Dosage Of Vitamin B2
The Food and Nutrition Council of the Medical Institute has identified the following recommended levels of vitamin B2:
- 0,3 milligrams daily for infants from 0 to 6 months old
- 0,4 mg daily for infants from 7 to 12 months
- 0,5 mg daily for children from 1 to 3 years
- From 4 to 8 years for children 0,6 mg daily
- 9-13 years for children 0,9 mg daily
- 1,3 mg per day for men aged 14 and older
- For women from 14 to 18 years - 1,0 mg per day
- 1,1 mg daily for women over the age of 18
When taken with food, the dose usually ranges from 25 to 100 mg per day.
In cancer prevention studies, 80 mg riboflavin was administered for up to 20 months. Other studies were performed on 5 mg daily for 9 years.
For various migraine studies, 200-400 mg vitamin B2 was administered daily for up to three months. In some studies, the headache dose was much lower - 25 mg daily.
The best dose should be discussed with your doctor or other qualified health care professional.
Vitamin B2 Side Effect And Interaction
FDA Riboflavin was given as "Safe" (GRAS) status. NMCD evaluated vitamin B2 supplements as likely to be safe when administered orally and properly.
NMCD also appreciates this vitamin as likely to be safe for pregnant and lactating women at RFID level. It is evaluated as potentially safe when administered orally.
The daily dose of riboflavin is not used per day (UL). According to the NMCD, the use of high doses has a limited potential to damage due to poor absorption of this vitamin from the intestine and high rate of release.
Vitamin B2 is generally well tolerated as a dietary supplement. High doses can cause diarrhea or make urine orange.
Some medicines that vitamin B2 can interact with include anticholinergic drugs, phenobarbital, Probenecid and tetracyclic antibiotics.
Some medicines that may affect the condition of B2 are antibiotics, torazine (chlorpromazine), Rubex (doxorubicin) and oral contraceptives.
Bright psillium, boron, iron and folic acid can also affect the uptake of vitamin B2 in the body.
If you want to use a specific health goal, ask your doctor about supplementing with vitamin B2. Check with your doctor before taking this medicine if you are taking prescription drugs and / or have any medical conditions.
- University of Maryland Medical Center. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin). Accessed Dec. 17, 2016.
- Vitamin B2. Accessed Dec. 17, 2016
- Weil. Vitamin B2 for Adrenal Health. Accessed Dec.17, 2016
- Ax. Vitamin B2 / Riboflavin: Benefits, Sources, & Deficiency. Accessed Dec. 17, 2016.
- Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Monologue. Accessed Dec. 18, 2016.
- Oregon State University Linus Pauling Institute. Riboflavin: Deficiency.
- US National Library of Medicine. Medline Plus. Riboflavin.