Vitamin B3 is Vitamin B complex which is also called niacin. Like other members of the B Vitamin B Complex, Vitamin B3 is needed to get energy from the food we eat.
Visi Vitamins of group B complex Helps to metabolize carbohydrates into energy, uses fat and protein properly, and supports healthy skin, eyes and hair. They are also needed for healthy nervous system function and liver health. 
All human cells need the right amount of vitamin B3 to work properly. Niacin is a cofactor of more than 200-relevant enzymes that modulate cellular metabolism. It also plays a role in DNA recovery and free radical protection. 
Niacin is used as a function of brain function, arthritis, cardiovascular health, mood enhancement, skin health, headache, and so on. Additions. In addition, clinical studies have shown that niacin may be useful in reducing cholesterol.
This article will discuss the use of vitamin B3 and its health benefits, as well as how it works in the body, deficiencies, doses, additional information, safety and side effects.
How Does Vitamin B3 Work In The Human Body?
According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMM), there are two major forms of vitamin B3 - niacin (nicotinic acid) and niacinamide (nicotinamide). 
MedLine Plus Niacin and niacinamide have been studied primarily as precursors to two important enzymes called NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). 
Both NAD and NADP are important because they are essential for proper metabolic function. 
They are required for a variety of processes, including synthesis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), oxidation / reduction reactions, and ADP (adenosine diphosphate) transfer reactions. 
According to UMM, niacin is also required for the production of stress-resistant hormones and sex hormones. In this regard, vitamin B3 helps to promote the functioning of the adrenal glands, reduces systemic swelling and improves blood circulation.
All B3 vitamin forms, like all B vitamins, are usually soluble in water. They are easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when used as oral supplements.
This nutrient is not stored in the human body and should be used regularly for optimal health. For comparison, fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body and should not be consumed on a regular basis to avoid deficiencies.
Individuals can increase their niacin levels by eating vegetarian and animal foods that contain this vitamin and / or with food supplements.
People can also produce vitamin B3 from amino acid tryptophan, but this conversion is not very effective. 1 mg tryptophan is required to produce 60 mg niacin.
Deficiency of Vitamin B3
In western countries, vitamin B3 deficiency is very rare among people who eat healthy and varied foods. The disadvantage is most common in places where people do not have access to a variety of diets, and most diets consist of cereals or corn.
Some of the most common symptoms of B3 vitamin deficiency include: headache, fatigue, depression, confusion, memory loss, skin problems and / or diarrhea. 
Severe cases of niacin deficiency can result pellagra, a condition characterized by mental disorders, diarrhea and poor skin health. This is sometimes called dementia, diarrhea and dermatitis.
Many times pellagra has been linked to a diet that is too corn-based. 
According to the comprehensive database of natural medicines (NMCD) in Western countries practice has been eliminated pellagra. It usually occurs only in the case of severely ill alcoholics, who are eating poor diets, and those who have carcinoid tumors, or in other conditions that reduce niacin production and / or inhibit the absorption of tryptophan from the intestine. 
Vitamin B3 Consumption and Benefits to Health
According to NMCD, people are taking vitamin B3 for various purposes, including: 
- Alzheimer's disease and other forms of age-related cognitive decline
- Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Turnover issues
- Diarrhea associated with cholera
- Improving digestion
- Blood lipid reduction
- Memory loss
- Diseases of motion
Some preliminary studies have shown promising results using this vitamin supplement for other diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, ADHD and osteoporosis, but this study is limited.
Research is ongoing on the potential effects of vitamin B3 on cognitive decline, eye / visual health, various dermatological conditions, migraine headaches, depression, motion sickness and alcoholism, ED (erectile dysfunction), kidney failure, high blood pressure (hypertension). aging process. 
Further clinical trials are still required to determine the therapeutic efficacy of B3 in any of these and other purposes.
Some specific vitamin B3 products have been approved by the FDA as prescription drugs commonly used for dyslipidemia. These products are usually used in a clinical setting with medical supervision.
Most niacin products are sold as food supplements and are not intended for the prevention or treatment of medical conditions. The FDA does not approve of vitamin B3 supplements as medicines to cure or improve health.
Vitamin B3 Sources Food
Vitamin B3 is found in many foods that are widely used in North American nutrition. Many foods contain a certain amount of this vitamin or its precursors. For most people getting this vitamin from a diet is not complicated.
You can increase the level of B3 by using animal meat, fortified bread and cereals, green leafy vegetables, poultry, fish and some energy drinks. Linus Pauling The Institute says other foods containing vitamin B3 include beans, legumes, wheat germs, peanuts, lentils and coffee.
If possible, it is recommended that you get vitamin B3 and other nutrients mainly from organic, non-GMO vegetables and fruits. The best sources for eating animal products are herbs, organic meat and dairy products.
If it is not possible to take more diets, there are different Vitamin B3 and Group B Complex Supplements
Vitamin B3 Supplements
Supplements provide much higher levels of vitamin B3 than many food sources. If you lack this vitamin or have a medical condition that may be supported by a higher vitamin dose, your doctor may advise you to take it Vitamin B complex.
The B vitamins complex works synergistically in the body and usually the B vitamins must be all together. Usually it is not recommended to use one vitamin B complex in other forms.
NMCD claims that there are almost 7000 food supplements containing vitamin B3. Always look for third-party verified cGMP-compliant supplements manufactured by trusted manufacturers.
Always follow the dosing instructions for the purchased products, unless otherwise stated by your healthcare professional.
High doses of vitamin B3 can cause side effects. Always consult your doctor about dietary supplements such as Niacin to determine if it is right for you.
Vitamin B3 Dosage
Linus Pauling Institute (LPI) reports the following recommended levels of vitamin B3 in food:
- 2 mg daily for infants from 0 to 6 months
- 4 mg daily for infants from 7 to 12 months
- 1-3 years for children 6 mg daily
- 8 mg daily for children from 4 to 8 years
- 9-13 years for children 12 mg daily
- 16 mg daily for boys and men of 14 years and older
- 14 mg daily for girls and women of 14 years
- 18 mg daily for pregnant women
- 17 mg for nursing women 
LPI argues that higher doses than recommended above should be discussed with a doctor and should only be taken under medical supervision.
Higher doses were used for research. According to NMCD: “The highest increase in HDL and decrease in triglycerides is seen in 1200-1500 mg daily. The greatest effect of Niacin on LDL occurs when 2000-3000 mg daily. "
These high doses should only be taken under the supervision of a doctor. Taking too much niacin may increase the risk of serious adverse reactions.
Vitamin B3 Adds Side Effects
Natural Medicine Database The time of vitamin B3 is probably safe when used properly.
LPI says there are no risks associated with the consumption of foods containing vitamin B3. However, food supplements, especially at high doses, can cause various adverse effects. Some of the possible side effects are nausea, vomiting and liver toxicity.
High doses of vitamin B3 can cause liver damage. For this reason, some doctors do not want this vitamin to fight high cholesterol in some patients.
There is a concern that doses of vitamin B3 from 3 to 9 grams per day can cause blood glucose damage. This has been observed for both short and long term use. For this reason, this supplement should not be used without endocrinologist advice in patients with diabetes or prediabetes.
UMM states that high additional doses of niacin can also cause headaches, dizziness and / or blurred vision. Before deciding to use this supplement, consult your doctor about the possible side effects of vitamin B3.
- Kerri-Ann Jennings, MS, RD. 9 Science-Based Benefits of Niacin (Vitamin B3). Accessed Dec.19, 2016.
- University of Maryland Medical Center. Vitamin B3 (Niacin).
- MedLinePlus. Niacin and niacinamide (Vitamin B3). Accessed Dec. 19, 2016.
- Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Vitamin B3 (Niacin Monograph). Accessed Dec. 19, 2016.
- Julius U1,1. Niacin as antidyslipidemic drug. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Dec; 93 (12): 1043-54. doi: 10.1139 / cjpp-2014-0478. Epub 2015 Apr 28./a>
- LINUS PAULING INSTITUTE. Micronutrient Information Center. Niacin. Accessed Dec. 21, 2016.
- Penn State Hershey Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Vitamin B3 (Niacin).
- John WB, Rapoza CP, Blair WF. The effect of niacinamide on osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Inflamm Res. 1996.