Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid, is an important nutrient that dissolves in water and is not stored in fat cells.
It must be obtained from dietary sources or food supplements. Almost all food sources have some pantothenic acid, so the deficiencies of vitamin B5 are very rare.
Like everyone Vitamins of group B complexVitamin B5 is best known for its role in food conversion to energy. It also plays other important roles in the body in terms of proper brain and nervous system function.
This vitamin is needed for biosynthesis of red blood cells, production of stress and sex hormone, blood lipid balance and maintenance of healthy organs, including liver, skin, eyes and hair. 
Vitamin B5 is also important for the production of an important enzyme called coenzyme-A (CoA), which is involved in many body functions, including the production of hormones and the synthesis of fatty acids.
This article will discuss how vitamin B5 works in the body, common uses and health benefits, deficiencies, additional doses, safety and side effects, and possible drug interactions.
How Does Vitamin B5 Work In The Human Body?
The Natural Drugs Database (NMCD) indicates that vitamin B5 is needed for intermediate metabolism of fat, proteins and carbohydrates.
Pantothenic acid is a precursor of a molecule called co-enzyme-A (CoA) involved in many biochemical reactions. Specifically, co-enzyme-A is required:
- Acetylation actions in glucogenogenesis (for glucose production)
- To facilitate healthy epithelial tissue function
- Production and degradation of fatty acids
- Carbohydrate energy released
Coenzyme-A is also involved in the biosynthesis of various steroid hormones, porphyrins, sterols and other compounds. 
According to Dr. Michael Lam, pantothenic acid in the human body, forms another chemical called pantothen. He says pantetine is a more stable, double-bonded (disulfide) vitamin B5 form. This is the form that the body uses to produce coenzyme-A. 
Dr. Lam says that coenzyme-A is a cofactor of at least seventy different enzymes. He notes other co-enzyme-A roles, including pyruvate degradation, amino acid catabolism, heme synthesis, and early stages of cholesterol synthesis.
This coenzyme is also required for "and all further cholesterol metabolites, including steroids, vitamin D and bile acid". 
Vitamin B5 is also required for the production of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays a role in memory and brain activity. B5 deficiency can lead to inappropriate acetylcholine production. 
According to Dr. Peter Osborne, Vitamin B5 is also very important in promoting a healthy response to stress. He says he is used to promote the secretion of adrenal cortisol; one of the most important factors associated with adaptive stress reactions. 
Dr. Osborne says that chronically low levels can lead to inability to cope with stress in everyday life. He says that people who lack B5 may feel overwhelmed by the problems they felt were small.
Dr. Osborne also says Vitamin B5 helps fight inflammation and allergies through adrenal stimulation and cortisol release. He says the immune system also uses important antibodies such as Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA and IgE. 
Vitamin B5 Food Additive Consumption
People are taking vitamin B5 supplements for various purposes. NMCD says some of the reasons for supplementing this vitamin with your diet are:
- Impaired Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Strengthening of immune function
- Improving athletics
- Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
- Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
- Physical and mental stress
- Skin disorders
Vitamin B5 is also used as a cream or ointment for itching, eczema, insect bites, diaper rashes and acne.
Vitamin B5 is a FDA food supplement and has not been approved as a medicine to treat any condition.
If you are interested in pantothenic acid for a particular health condition, it is recommended that you talk to your doctor to see if this is right for you.
Deficiency of Vitamin B5
Since small amounts of pantothenic acid can be found in almost all foods, people usually get enough of these nutrients from the food they eat. The lack of B5 in nutrition is usually only seen in malnutrition.
According to Dr. In Osborne, vitamin B5 deficiency usually results from chronic stress, not nutrition.
He says that due to lack of vitamin B5 we can lose the ability to respond properly and effectively to stress. Becoming intolerant to stress can lead not only to inappropriate response to mental stress, but also to disease resistance. 
Dr. Osborne says that lack of vitamin B5 can lead to intolerance to stress, and then lead to inability to exercise. He says this is related to depression in some people.
According to dr. In Osborne, those with low levels of pantothenic acid not only have an increased risk of infections and diseases, but are less able to fight diseases.
He says that those who do not do physical exercise have a higher risk of developing illnesses including breathing, urinary tract and various chronic viral infections.
UMM claims that vitamin B5 deficiency is rare, but can occur with a variety of symptoms. Some of them are depression, insomnia, fatigue, abdominal pain and vomiting. 
NMCD reports other possible symptoms of B5 vitamin deficiency, including upper respiratory tract infections, drowsiness, muscle weakness, cardiovascular instability and mood swings. 
NMCD claims that vitamin B5 deficiency can also cause peripheral neuropathy (peripheral nerve disorder or disease). One of the symptoms associated with this phenomenon is called paresthesia characterized by tingling, numbness, "pins and needles", sensation.
Best Vitamin B5 Food Sources
According to UMM, some of the best foods for vitamin B5 use are beer yeast, egg yolks and organ meat, especially the liver and kidneys.
Additional healthy food sources include legumes, lentils, beans, sprouts, sweet potatoes and cereal bread. You can also increase the consumption of lobster, duck, avocado, sunflower, salmon, crustacean and mushroom to get more vitamin B5.
Green vegetables provide excellent sources of vitamin B5, as well as various other nutrients. Consider increasing your diet, spinach, pumpkin, dandelion, beet leaves.
Vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and cabbage are also very good sources.
Recycling and cooking can reduce the amount of vitamin B5 and other nutrients in foods. According to dr. Andrew Weil is recommended, where possible, to obtain essential nutrients from raw, organic, non-GMO vegetables and fruits. 
If you are eating products of animal origin, consider choosing organic, grass feed and dairy products.
Vitamin B5 Food Supplements
A comprehensive database of natural medicines suggests that there are more than 7800 supplements containing vitamin B5. This vitamin is usually found as one of the multivitamin ingredients either The B vitamins are complex Annex.
Vitamin B5 supplements are supplied in the form of tablets, capsules, soft and bulk powders. Pantothenic acid is also used for eye drops, creams and nasal sprays. Typically, the ingredient is labeled as pantothenic acid or calcium pantothenate.
As the only ingredient, most preparations make up 500 mg pantothenic acid. When incorporated into B-complex multivitamins, amounts are usually much lower, usually at a dose of about 5,5 mg, up to a dose of 100 mg.
Usually it is recommended to balance the consumption of all B complex vitamins. Increasing consumption of one or more B vitamins without increasing others can lead to imbalances in health or metabolism.
Unless otherwise directed by your doctor, the use is usually recommended Multivitamins of group B complexand not just increase vitamin B intake of one complex.
Vitamin B5 Dosage Guidelines
Unlike some other vitamins, there is no RDA * (recommended daily allowance) or UL (upper tolerable concentration) pantothenic acid. Instead, a sufficient quantity (AI) was established.
The UMM reports that a typical recommendation for use is 5 mg daily from food sources. This is an acceptable guideline, but it is believed that much larger quantities are safe.
MedLinePlus announces the following general guidelines for the use of vitamin B5 in food:
- 1,7 mg daily for infants from 0 to 6 months
- 1,8 mg daily for infants from 7 to 12 months
- 2 mg daily for children from 1 to 3 years
- For children from 4 to 8 years
- For children from 9 to 13 years
- Women and men - 14 years and older - 5 mg daily
Usually, women who are pregnant are advised to take 6 mg daily and 7 mg daily during breast-feeding.
The vitamin B5 doses used as a single dietary supplement are generally much higher than the AI values.
These higher doses are not considered unsafe for a short time. No significant adverse effects were observed at doses up to 10 g daily in the study. 
The dose of 2000 mg was used in the study of arthritis.  In one study, doses ranged from 500 mg daily and slowly increased to 500 mg administered 4 once daily.
In one study with constipation, the dose of 400 mg was given for five days. Other studies used lower doses, including one hair growth study in women who received 100 mg daily for 4-5 months.
It is recommended that you talk to your doctor to determine the best dose for your needs.
Vitamin B5 Side Effect
The NMCD Vitamin B5 additionally takes as potential safe when administered orally and properly.
Use in pregnant or breastfeeding women is considered safe if you are taking the appropriate amounts.
In healthy adults, they are not considered to be significant side effects due to too much vitamin B5 from food supplements. The use of this product in standard amounts is not expected to cause toxicity.
The only side effects are rare: mild intestinal disorder and diarrhea. This was observed only at very high daily doses of 10 to 20 grams.
According to NMCD, after eating a meal, vitamin B5 should be taken with water to ensure optimal absorption.
Vitamin B5 in the form of dexpanthenol has been associated with itching, burning, contact dermatitis, eczema and skin irritation in some people.
Vitamin B5 Interaction with Medicines and Contraindications
If you have been diagnosed with a serious medical condition or are taking any prescription medication, consult your doctor before taking B5 supplement for any purpose.
The use of tetracycline antibiotics is expected to reduce the production of vitamin B5 from intestinal microflora. However, it is not known whether this is a significant source of vitamin for humans, and it is not considered necessary to supplement the antibiotics after use.
Vitamin B5 may affect the effects and / or side effects of some medicines, including cholinesterase inhibitors and blood thinners.
To check your vitamin B status, Dr. Osborne says he is turning to a doctor for a lymphocyte proliferation test. He says it is much more accurate than a common blood test.
Vitamin B5 is a nutrient that is essential for all forms of life. Talk to your doctor about how it may be useful for you.
- University of Maryland Medical Center. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid). Accessed Dec. 20, 2016.
- Dr. Peter Osborne. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid). Accessed Dec. 20, 2016.
- Aprahamian M, Dentinger A, Stock-Damge C, Kouassi JC, Grenier JF. Effects of supplemental pantothenic acid on wound healing. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985.
- Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) Monograph. Accessed Dec. 20, 2016.
- Lam, M. About Vitamin B5: A Guide to Usage and Dosage. Accessed Dec. 20, 2016.
- LINUS PAULING INSTITUTE. Micronutrient Information Center. Pantothenic Acid. Accessed Dec. 20, 2016.
- Mayo Clinic. Peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms and causes. Accessed Dec. 20, 2016.
- Weil. Pantothenic Acid, Vitamin B5. Accessed Dec. 20, 2016.
- MedLinePlus. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5). Accessed Dec. 20, 2016.